NHS FPX8002 Assessment 2

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Demonstrating Effective Leadership

According to NHS FPX8002 Assessment 2 Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), population health allows healthcare systems, agencies, and groups to collaborate in improving the health of the areas they serve. This article concerns mental health issues, which gained strength among minority populations throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, and the impact that it has on society in general. In this paper, minorities will be represented by women, colored people, gays, bisexuals, and people of low incomes. For community health to change, it should be a flexible, transdisciplinary process to connect agencies, organizations, and healthcare systems practice and policy on the local level. It will also be discussed in this paper what best practices can be utilized by an interprofessional coalition team to ensure that the goal is reached. In turn, population health makes the big issues of health care look small and at how resources could be used to fix the problems that make people sick in the population. (CDC, 2022).

Factors contributing to mental health issues in minorities during Covid-19

The frequency of mental health problems is very high. In reality, the CDC claims that one in five American people suffers from at least one mental disorder annually. Some of the people from racial and ethnic minority groups are more likely to belong to this group due to the difficulties they experience in getting healthcare. The COVID-19 pandemic brought suffering and anxiety for all, irrespective of race. These problems comprise the loss of a loved one or a number of family members, loss of a job, loss of financial wherewithal, problems in children’s education due to a lack of school materials, little food, supply chain shortages of range of household items, not getting necessary medications due to fewer medications being produced and more health problems in people due to limited movement. On the other hand, research studies have revealed that the US population comprises 40% racial and ethnic minorities. The groups have suffered disproportionately from COVID-19, with the highest rates of infection, severe illness, hospitalization, and death from the virus (Nguyen et al., 2022). Additionally, African American people died from COVID-19 at a rate that was 2.4 times the rate for non-Hispanic White people (Purtle, 2020).

Minorities often suffer from poor mental health due to their limited access to mental health care. This access includes a lack of health insurance, mental health facilities, poor medical care, and correct assessment. It was reported by Carratala and Maxwell (2020) that in 2017, lack of health insurance affected 10.6 % of African Americans and 16.1% of Hispanics. According to McGuire and Miranda (2008), racial and ethnic minorities receive less mental health care than Caucasians. They are also more unlikely to receive proper care, and even when they do, it is bad care. Individuals from these groups are also more apt to delay or not utilize mental health care as compared to my people. This inequity of available health care might result from the inability of the representatives of the minority groups to acquire insurance because they cannot get the work.

NHS FPX8002 Assessment 2 Demonstrating Effective Leadership

The rate of unemployment indicated by the U.S. Bureau of Labour Statistics grew from 11.5% to 31.2% among Black people and from 3.7% to 16.7% among Latinos (Purtle, 2020). This group will find healthcare access difficult as the rate of unemployment is very high. Those with psychiatric health problems will have even more difficulties in accessing care. Minorities are more likely to be misdiagnosed or not diagnosed at all by mental health care professionals than their white counterparts. NHS FPX8002 Assessment 2 African Americans with an affective disorder are more prone to be diagnosed with schizophrenia than white people with this disorder. Conversely, affective disorders are more common in Hispanics than in white people. Besides, African Americans are less likely to use atypical antipsychotic drugs and other newer drugs compared to whites (Primm et al., 2010). The reason is that African Americans are believed to be non-compliant when it comes to taking their medicines as recommended or may have no money to buy them. Minority sector problems of mental health are compounded by institutional racism, prejudice, and the stigma attached to mental health.

Interprofessional Coalition Team to Prevent Mental Health Issues

With the gradual end of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is time to repair the mental damages it has caused, especially in minority groups that struggle to get care. To prevent the group from acquiring mental health issues, a coalition team will be created following the coalition members’ requirements. The table provided below indicates the number of people in a team who will collaborate in resolving the mental health issues of the minorities arising as a result of COVID-19. Those who wish to join this team shall be at least 18 years of age, fluent in both English and Spanish, have a voice in their current organization, and be decision-makers in their field.

Table 1

Coalition Team Members and Their Contributions

Issues Affecting Collaboration in a Coalition Team

Unity of action is one of the most important principles any successful team and its members should follow to achieve their objectives. The absence of teamwork will lead to misunderstandings among the participants, chaos, and missed objectives that will be harmful both for the team itself and the employer as a whole. In the minority population, combating mental health challenges can be difficult if the coalition team does not work as a team. This could reduce the level of morale and creativity when workers work alone; this means that when they are not working together, employees don’t come up with new ideas. There are some challenges that can occur when people of different professions come to work as a team. The first one is ignorance. Lack of clarity among team members concerning the big picture goals and expectations leads to misinterpretation, thus causing a big derailment of the team. Lack of transparency is also a likely issue. Some team members may disagree about the current state of affairs, which can, in turn, cause issues. 

NHS FPX8002 Assessment 2 Ethical Considerations

Transparency is required to fill that gap so that a team can work as a team. Another issue that could arise is the question of trust and respect. In other words, a finger is being pointed at everyone to everybody, which eliminates respect among them. Rudeness will occur if people do not have trust in each other. The other factor that influences cooperation is the management of disagreement in a constructive manner. Where beliefs, attitudes, hobbies, goals, communication, and other things go against the original proposal, a conflict occurs. Each person on the team must remember that his/her vision is peculiar, and hence, what one person sees is what the other person sees. Therefore, any team that has a conflict should deal with it in a constructive way, by which it would be able to achieve its objectives. Challenges of operating in a coalition team are cultural and value differences, power dynamics and egos, and management of resources to ensure they are used efficiently (Abdul, 2022).

Strategies to Optimize Collaboration

The teamwork has many advantages, but the major one is the new work of the team. The problem of how to achieve better cooperation within a team will depend on the issue that needs to be resolved. Different strategies will not be applicable to every team since each team has its own set of objectives. Anyhow, these tactics are universal in improving cooperation.

  • Define the objectives and targets of the partnership beforehand and ensure that all the concerned parties are aware of them.
  • Ensure that clear paths and contact standards are known and used by everyone.
  • The aim and the object must be distinct and unchanging from start to finish.
  • Ensure that dispute and conflict resolution processes are implemented immediately.
  • Proper control of a joint method involving making adjustments when necessary to achieve objectives.
  • As a last step, it is necessary for every team member to feel comfortable (Abdul, 2022).

Ethical Carefulness

An alliance, to function properly and achieve its aims, has to consider and address all moral issues that may arise. Ethical standards should be considered when working in an alliance team, as they provide a framework for ethical problem-solving. Liberty, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and fidelity are all ethical concepts (Common Ethical Issues, 2018). To be informed consent, culture is a social issue to ponder upon when dealing with mental health issues in the minority sector. Informed consent is essential as it defends the rights of privacy that both the team and the client have, but it requires time and clarification. However, since mental health is associated with shame, getting such permission will be difficult, which will deter people from seeking help and care.

Getting valid consent is also difficult because there are some people who come from bad areas where they speak different languages; hence, communication is a problem. However, the service should be very direct with the client in telling them why they have to get this information. Confidentiality is another ethical dilemma to consider. (Common Ethical Issues, 2018) maintains that due to the sensitivity of the health problem, the team should be prepared to keep all the discussions with their client confidential. An additional social issue to consider is how the lack of time and money may impede talks, which in turn may hinder the speed of healthcare access (Cox, 2019).

NHS FPX8002 Assessment 2

The ethical issue of mental health in the minority sector at the local level is social shame. This can also complicate the lives of the people with the mental disease and their families (Holder et al., 2019). Stigma with mental health makes people withdraw and not have any support. People are less likely to receive help when they feel criticized or blamed. This result adversely impacts the economy as it leads to more job losses and is more expensive to provide social support (Holder et al., 2019). As for the fear of being blamed or judged by the client, the alliance team should adhere to the ethical principle of The Code of Ethics to do no harm to the client. They should tell people who are in therapy that it won’t harm them and encourage them to continue therapy for their problems and not belong to different groups.

On a Meso level, the team should consider the ethical concerns that arise from providing this area of correct care and assessment. As stated earlier, blacks are more likely than other people to be misdiagnosed or not identified when they go for treatment for their mental health problems. The unity team should be prepared to discuss issues surrounding ensuring healthcare for all, regardless of their race, and the right medical evaluation. The group should also adhere to the ethical principles of justice and beneficence as outlined by the Code of Ethics, which states that everyone should be treated equitably and in a way that promotes their well-being and improved health (Holder et al., 2019).  

NHS FPX8002 Assessment 2 Collaboration, Diversity and Inclusion

Inclusion entails active, continuous attempts to ensure that people of diverse identities and backgrounds are able to participate in all the activities of an organization. However, diversity refers to the existence of differences in a situation. It could also be based on religion, race, culture, or gender. It is revealed in the fact that people are similar and different at once. Steven Covey, the author of The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, stated that what makes us powerful is not what makes us similar (Tan, 2019). For the alliance team to be set up to handle mental health problems in the minority sector, every team member has to be “asked to dance.” In other words, the members of the team are receptive to people from various backgrounds. The results of these will be good teamwork, which will be promoted, and when the team is being respected, appreciated, and supported, good things will occur. Recognizing how a multifaceted team can help the group achieve its goals and accepting this diversity at all levels will result in more creativity, fresh ideas, improved goal-setting, quicker progress, satisfied customers, and, eventually, the team’s success (Tan, 2019). With the increased power among the people, the alliance team can very well partner with the health care facilities and the government agencies to ensure that the minority group people are well provided with the best mental health care irrespective of their ease of reaching the resources.

An effective team or organization struggles to achieve its targets if it lacks the ability to communicate clearly. This will permit high-quality patient service and, finally, good outcomes. Listening with attention, nonverbal communication, being nice, brevity and clarity, empathy, confident speaking, feedback, medium choice, closed-loop communication, and openmindedness are the top strategies for this group of professionals to interact with one another (D’Alimonte et al., 2019). 

Literature Review to Address Mental Health Issues in Minorities during COVID-19

The 2021 Saltzman et al. study on COVID-19 mental health inequality specifically addresses mental health disparities in races and offers solutions to bridge this gap, both now and in the future. The second aim was to investigate how early mental health-related patterns related to the pandemic were modified and what role social determinants of health played in these patterns (Saltzman et al., 2021). NHS FPX8002 Assessment 2 impacts of COVID-19 are numerous stresses and other problems that make a big difference in mental health. So, it points out that healthcare organizations and service delivery systems should view this issue as a major problem. The focus of this study was to highlight the best practices, and one of them is that the collaborative approach should focus on chosen treatment and methods rather than the fact that the clients are admitted into health facilities (Saltzman et al., 2021).

In their literature review, titled “The Mental Health Burden of Racial and ethnic minorities during the Covid-19 Pandemic,” Nguyen et al. (2022) concluded that racial and ethnic minorities suffered in an unequal way during the pandemic as far as mental health is concerned. They also mentioned that these variations should be considered as health care systems’ turning to the reduction of long-term effects from the prevention of infections. One of the good ideas proposed by Nguyen et al. is that minorities who were affected by the pandemic and who will suffer after its end need to start their conversations about their mental health and happiness openly as soon as possible. These individuals believe that discussion of these matters might remove the stigma attached to mental illness by these groups and allow for rapid identification of people who may need help (Nguyen et al., 2022).


In general, Covid-19 brought quite a lot of knowledge about public health, and differences in mental health problems among ethnic groups were no exemption. Research has revealed that these persons are at higher risk of more mental health problems because they are less likely to get proper health care, and their complaints are often misdiagnosed or not diagnosed at all. In achieving this objective, which is to maximize this difference, it is crucial to build a powerful alliance team that is effective enough to solve these issues. An inclusive, diverse, and collaborative coalition team is one where everyone is accepted and valued, and each team member’s contributions are considered key to achieving the team’s goals. When these objectives are achieved, they will allow all individuals access to mental health care services regardless of the ease at which they can get resources. It will relieve the health problems of the whole population, which will be beneficial for the entire community.


Abdul, H. (2022, December 5). 11 Guaranteed collaboration challenges with action steps. https://theecmconsultant.com/collaboration-challenges/

Carratala, S., & Maxwell, C. (2020, May 7). Health disparities by race and ethnicity. Center for American Progress. https://www.americanprogress.org/article/health-disparities-race-ethnicity/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, August 26). What is population health? https://www.cdc.gov/pophealthtraining/whatis.html

Common ethical issues. (2018, October 20). Syracuse University School of Education. https://soe.syr.edu/departments/academic/counseling-human-services/modules/ethical

Cox, D. J. (2019). Ethical considerations in interdisciplinary treatments. In (Ed.), Handbook of interdisciplinary treatments for autism spectrum disorder (pp. 49–61). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-13027-5_4

D’Alimonte, L., McLaney, E., & Di Prospero, L. (2019). Best practices on team communication: Interprofessional practice in oncology. Current Opinion in Supportive & Palliative Care, 13(1), 69–74. https://doi.org/10.1097/spc.0000000000000412

Holder, S. M., Peterson, E. R., Stephens, R., & Crandall, L. A. (2019). Stigma in mental health at the macro and micro levels: Implications for mental health consumers and professionals. Community Mental Health Journal, 55(3), 369–374. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-018-0308-y

Lance, D. M., & McCullough, K. C. (n.d.). Communication strategies for interprofessional teams. Human Kinetics. https://us.humankinetics.com/blogs/excerpt/communication-strategies-for-interprofessional-teams

McGuire, T. G., & Miranda, J. (2008). New evidence regarding racial and ethnic disparities in mental health: Policy implications. Health Affairs27(2), 393-403. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.27.2.393

Nguyen, L. H., Anyane-Yeboa, A., Klaser, K., Merino, J., Drew, D. A., Ma, W., Mehta, R. S., Kim, D. Y., Warner, E. T., Joshi, A. D., Graham, M. S., Sudre, C. H., Thompson, E. J., May, A., Hu, C., Jørgensen, S., Selvachandran, S., Berry, S. E., David, S. P.,…Chan, A. T. (2022). The mental health burden of racial and ethnic minorities during the COVID-19 pandemic. PLOS ONE, 17(8), e0271661. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0271661

Purtle, J. (2020). Covid-19 and mental health equity in the united states. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 55(8), 969–971. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-020-01896-8

Saltzman, L. Y., Lesen, A. E., Henry, V., Hansel, T. C., & Bordnick, P. S. (2021). Covid-19 mental health disparities. Health Security, 19(S1), S–5-S-13. https://doi.org/10.1089/hs.2021.0017

Tan, T. Q. (2019). Principles of inclusion, diversity, access, and equity. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 220(Supplement_2), S30–S32. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz198

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